What Is Counter Flow Cooling Tower?

What is a cooling tower and how does it work?

A cooling tower is a heat exchanger, inside of which heat is withdrawn from the water by contact between the water and the air.

The heat transfer occurs through the heat exchange between air and water and through the evaporation of a small part of the water that needs to be cooled..

What is the meaning of TR in cooling tower?

ton of refrigerationA ton of refrigeration (TR or TOR), also called a refrigeration ton (RT), is a unit of power used in some countries (especially in North America) to describe the heat-extraction capacity of refrigeration and air conditioning equipment.

What is the use of cooling tower?

Cooling towers are primarily used for heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) and industrial purposes. Cooling towers provide a cost-effective and energy efficient operation of systems in need of cooling. More than 1,500 industrial facilities use large quantities of water to cool their plants 2.

Why are cooling towers so tall?

Because they are “natural draft” towers. … A natural draft tower is very large (tall) and shaped like a nozzle. This allows for cool, dense air from the environment to naturally flow up through the bottom of the tower and out through the top. That flow of air is what drives the evaporation of the fluid being cooled.

What is an advantage of a crossflow tower as compared to a counterflow cooling tower?

In counterflow towers the water produces a rain noise in the spraying area as well when it is falling from the infill on to the water surface. In crossflow towers the noise of water is nearly absent. CROSSFLOW TOWERS + Low pumping head, thus lower operational cost.

What are the different types of cooling towers?

The types of cooling towers based on the air flow generation are Natural draft, Mechanical draft, Cross-flow and Counter-flow towers.Natural Draft cooling towers use the design and shape of the tower itself to move up the air naturally using fans. … Mechanical Draft towers tend to use a fan to force the air.More items…•

Which type of cooling tower is more efficient?

Water-cooled chillers are normally more energy efficient than air-cooled chillers due to heat rejection to tower water at or near wet-bulb temperatures. Air-cooled chillers must reject heat at the higher dry-bulb temperature, and thus have a lower average reverse-Carnot cycle effectiveness.

What is the difference between crossflow and counterflow cooling towers?

The focus is on factory-assembled induced-draft crossflow and counterflow cooling towers. … In a crossflow tower, air travels horizontally across the direction of the falling water whereas in a counterflow tower air travels in the opposite direction (counter) to the direction of the falling water.

Is cooling tower a heat exchanger?

A cooling tower is a specialized heat exchanger in which air and water are brought into direct contact with each other in order to reduce the water’s temperature. As this occurs, a small volume of water is evaporated, reducing the temperature of the water being circulated through the tower.

What causes a cooling tower to overflow?

Overflow: If the water level in the basin gets too high, it will flow through here and out to a drain. Drain: Water will be drained from the cooling tower for maintenance purposes but also periodically during normal operation when the level of impurities in the water gets too high.

How do natural draft cooling towers work?

Working Principle of Natural Draft Cooling Towers The hot water liberates heat after direct contact with fresh air and some of the water gets evaporated and cold water gets collected at the bottom of the tower. Warm and moist air will be discharged from the top of the tower into the atmosphere.

What is inside a cooling tower?

Water is an essential part of thermal electricity generation. … Inside the towers the warm water is poured over what’s known as the cooling tower pack, a series of stacks of corrugated plastic that sit roughly 30 metres up the tower. The heat and the tower’s height create a natural draught.

Which is more efficient parallel flow or counterflow?

The exchanger is performing at its best when the outlet temperatures are equal. Counter flow heat exchangers are inherently more efficient than parallel flow heat exchangers because they create a more uniform temperature difference between the fluids, over the entire length of the fluid path.

Is a cooling tower a condenser?

What is a cooling tower or evaporative condenser? A cooling tower is used to cool water by direct contact between that water and a stream of air. An evaporative condenser is used to cool water by passing that fluid through a heat exchanger which is itself cooled by contact with water passing through a stream of air.

What are the two types of cooling towers?

There are three main types of cooling towers that are defined by how water or air pass through them. These types include crossflow, counterflow, and hyperbolic. There are also two varieties classified solely on airflow, known as induced draft and passive draft cooling towers.

What is approach temperature in cooling tower?

Approach is the temperature of the water leaving the cooling tower (in this case, 85°F nominal) minus the ambient web bulb temperature (78°F wet bulb) or 7°F. This value represents how close the cooling tower gets the water to the wet bulb temperature of the surrounding air.